White Bull: The facts

- White Bull is the name given to the supposed legal substitute for cocaine intended to keep you awake and make you feel happy.

- It’s understood to be manufactured in Australia with chemicals imported from China.

- Publically-available information on its contents is hard to find, but laboratory testing undertaken on behalf of The Border Mail revealed that a sample from Wodonga adult shop Erotic Nights contained methylene-dioxypyrovalerone and lignocaine.

- Lignocaine is a common local anaesthetic.

- Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, also known as MDPV, is a stimulant developed in the 1960s by drug companies as an anti-depressant or appetite suppressant that never made it to market.

- Murrumbidgee Health clinical leader Alan Fisher said MDPV caused the brain to “drop a whole lot of neurochemicals”, namely dopamine, at once to make “you feel great”. But, he said, tolerance developed quickly and users often end up taking doses that could cause mood swings, psychosis, depression and violence.

- MDPV was banned under the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration’s poisons standard as of May last year. It’s banned in several states in America, in the United Kingdom and across Europe.

- The standard contains schedules outlining restrictions placed on a product and they vary from Schedule 2 products, which are available over-the-counter at pharmacies, to Schedule 11, which are drugs of dependence.

- MDPV is classed as a Schedule 9 drug, a drug of abuse that the manufacture, possession, sale or use should be prohibited by law except for medical or scientific research.