Bogong moths remain the primary food source for mountain pygmy-possums.
A North East Catchment Management Authority study determined the Bogong moth was the possum's key dietary item, but not its lone hope of survival.
There are only about 2000 mountain pygmy possums left in the wild, and their population is confined to three small alpine regions, including North East Victoria.
The study found variances in diet may be linked to the number of plants and insects in the environment surrounding their homes.
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North East CMA project officer Phill Falcke said the study had been undertaken to find out what mountain pygmy-possums were eating and how reliant they are on Bogong moths, particularly when moth numbers are known to have been in decline.
"Pouch young litter loss is a phenomenon observed where Mountain pygmy-possum females in a local population have lost their pouch young," Mr Falcke said.
"This phenomenon was observed in bushfire-affected sites in 2004 to 2006 and again between 2017 and 2019.
"Monitoring during January and February this year found almost all the female possums were in fair to good condition and there was limited evidence of pouch young litter loss.
"The cause of pouch young litter loss is not well known, but it's suspected that it may be caused by the decline in Bogong moth numbers over the past decade."
Mr Falcke said the study was a new approach to understanding the diet of the animals, with possum poo collected during the annual monitoring of the animals analysed with DNA metabarcoding.
Of the samples collected, 78 per cent contained Bogong moth.
"Long-term diet research across seasons and locations is also needed, and this will give a more accurate picture of what the possum's future is and what we need to do to halt further decline," he added.
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